Hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation is a serious and potentially lethal complication of HBV infection, and the risk is increased in patients on immunosuppressive therapy, especially anti–tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors or TNF-like antirheumatic drugs used by patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and other rheumatic diseases.
Neurological complications of Sjögren syndrome and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) require a standardized diagnostic approach. Because these complications are a spectrum of both peripheral nervous system and central nervous system (CNS) manifestations, a broad differential diagnosis is necessary, explained Julius Birnbaum, MD, Associate Director of the Johns Hopkins Jerome L. Greene Sjögren’s Syndrome Center in Baltimore, Maryland.
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) can have dire consequences, especially in the context of certain connective tissue diseases (CTDs). Thus, it is important to be alert for this condition, to diagnose it accurately, and to manage it properly. That being said, pulmonary hypertension occurring in patients with CTD is often multifactorial and difficult to manage.
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